Makrosprache

Unter Makrosprache versteht man eine Sprachkategorie. Im Vergleich zur Einzelsprache ist die Makrosprache eine Sprachkategorie in der Norm ISO 639-3, welche etwa 7.300 der existierenden und bekannten ausgestorbenen Sprachen besitzt. Demnach ist die Makrosprache eine Zusammenfassung eng verwandter Varianten welche bisher nur als Einzelsprachen aufgeführt wurden.

Die Einzelsprache wird vom Menschen verwendet und besitzt ein komplettes Zeichensystem mit Sprachlauten oder Sprachgebärden. Diese kann sich auf natürliche Weise entwickelt haben oder künstlich erstellt worden sein.

Die Makrosprachen werden sowohl von Ethnologue als auch SIL als eine Gruppe ähnlicher oder eng verwandter Einzelsprachen definiert, die in einigen Kontexten von ISO 639-3-Sprachen als eine Art universelle Einzelsprache angesehen werden kann.

Die folgende Tabelle von SIL ISO 639-3 enthält eine vollständige Übersicht der Makrosprachenzuordnungen zu den Einzelsprachen, aus denen sie bestehen.

 

Makrosprache Einzelsprache
Code Name Code Name
aka Akan fat Fanti
aka Akan twi Twi
ara Arabic aao Algerian Saharan Arabic
ara Arabic abh Tajiki Arabic
ara Arabic abv Baharna Arabic
ara Arabic acm Mesopotamian Arabic
ara Arabic acq Ta’izzi-Adeni Arabic
ara Arabic acw Hijazi Arabic
ara Arabic acx Omani Arabic
ara Arabic acy Cypriot Arabic
ara Arabic adf Dhofari Arabic
ara Arabic aeb Tunisian Arabic
ara Arabic aec Saidi Arabic
ara Arabic afb Gulf Arabic
ara Arabic ajp South Levantine Arabic
ara Arabic apc North Levantine Arabic
ara Arabic apd Sudanese Arabic
ara Arabic arb Standard Arabic
ara Arabic arq Algerian Arabic
ara Arabic ars Najdi Arabic
ara Arabic ary Moroccan Arabic
ara Arabic arz Egyptian Arabic
ara Arabic auz Uzbeki Arabic
ara Arabic avl Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic
ara Arabic ayh Hadrami Arabic
ara Arabic ayl Libyan Arabic
ara Arabic ayn Sanaani Arabic
ara Arabic ayp North Mesopotamian Arabic
ara Arabic bbz Babalia Creole Arabic
ara Arabic pga Sudanese Creole Arabic
ara Arabic shu Chadian Arabic
ara Arabic ssh Shihhi Arabic
aym Aymara ayc Southern Aymara
aym Aymara ayr Central Aymara
aze Azerbaijani azb South Azerbaijani
aze Azerbaijani azj North Azerbaijani
bal Baluchi bcc Southern Balochi
bal Baluchi bgn Western Balochi
bal Baluchi bgp Eastern Balochi
bik Bikol bcl Central Bikol
bik Bikol bhk Albay Bicolano
bik Bikol bln Southern Catanduanes Bikol
bik Bikol bto Rinconada Bikol
bik Bikol cts Northern Catanduanes Bikol
bik Bikol fbl West Albay Bikol
bik Bikol lbl Libon Bikol
bik Bikol rbl Miraya Bikol
bik Bikol ubl Buhi’non Bikol
bnc Bontok ebk Eastern Bontok
bnc Bontok lbk Central Bontok
bnc Bontok obk Southern Bontok
bnc Bontok rbk Northern Bontok
bnc Bontok vbk Southwestern Bontok
bua Buriat bxm Mongolia Buriat
bua Buriat bxr Russia Buriat
bua Buriat bxu China Buriat
chm Mari (Russia) mhr Eastern Mari
chm Mari (Russia) mrj Western Mari
cre Cree crj Southern East Cree
cre Cree crk Plains Cree
cre Cree crl Northern East Cree
cre Cree crm Moose Cree
cre Cree csw Swampy Cree
cre Cree cwd Woods Cree
del Delaware umu Munsee
del Delaware unm Unami
den Slave (Athapascan) scs North Slavey
den Slave (Athapascan) xsl South Slavey
din Dinka dib South Central Dinka
din Dinka dik Southwestern Dinka
din Dinka dip Northeastern Dinka
din Dinka diw Northwestern Dinka
din Dinka dks Southeastern Dinka
doi Dogri (macrolanguage) dgo Dogri (individual language)
doi Dogri (macrolanguage) xnr Kangri
est Estonian ekk Standard Estonian
est Estonian vro Võro
fas Persian pes Iranian Persian
fas Persian prs Dari
ful Fulah ffm Maasina Fulfulde
ful Fulah fub Adamawa Fulfulde
ful Fulah fuc Pulaar
ful Fulah fue Borgu Fulfulde
ful Fulah fuf Pular
ful Fulah fuh Western Niger Fulfulde
ful Fulah fui Bagirmi Fulfulde
ful Fulah fuq Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde
ful Fulah fuv Nigerian Fulfulde
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) bdt Bokoto
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) gbp Gbaya-Bossangoa
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) gbq Gbaya-Bozoum
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) gmm Gbaya-Mbodomo
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) gso Southwest Gbaya
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) gya Northwest Gbaya
gba Gbaya (Central African Republic) mdo Southwest Gbaya
gon Gondi esg Aheri Gondi
gon Gondi ggo Southern Gondi
gon Gondi gno Northern Gondi
gon Gondi wsg Adilabad Gondi
grb Grebo gbo Northern Grebo
grb Grebo gec Gboloo Grebo
grb Grebo grj Southern Grebo
grb Grebo grv Central Grebo
grb Grebo gry Barclayville Grebo
grn Guarani gnw Western Bolivian Guaraní
grn Guarani gug Paraguayan Guaraní
grn Guarani gui Eastern Bolivian Guaraní
grn Guarani gun Mbyá Guaraní
grn Guarani nhd Chiripá
hai Haida hax Southern Haida
hai Haida hdn Northern Haida
hbs Serbo-Croatian bos Bosnian
hbs Serbo-Croatian cnr Montenegrin
hbs Serbo-Croatian hrv Croatian
hbs Serbo-Croatian srp Serbian
hmn Hmong blu Hmong Njua
hmn Hmong cqd Chuanqiandian Cluster Miao
hmn Hmong hea Northern Qiandong Miao
hmn Hmong hma Southern Mashan Hmong
hmn Hmong hmc Central Huishui Hmong
hmn Hmong hmd Large Flowery Miao
hmn Hmong hme Eastern Huishui Hmong
hmn Hmong hmg Southwestern Guiyang Hmong
hmn Hmong hmh Southwestern Huishui Hmong
hmn Hmong hmi Northern Huishui Hmong
hmn Hmong hmj Ge
hmn Hmong hml Luopohe Hmong
hmn Hmong hmm Central Mashan Hmong
hmn Hmong hmp Northern Mashan Hmong
hmn Hmong hmq Eastern Qiandong Miao
hmn Hmong hms Southern Qiandong Miao
hmn Hmong hmw Western Mashan Hmong
hmn Hmong hmy Southern Guiyang Hmong
hmn Hmong hmz Hmong Shua
hmn Hmong hnj Hmong Njua
hmn Hmong hrm Horned Miao
hmn Hmong huj Northern Guiyang Hmong
hmn Hmong mmr Western Xiangxi Miao
hmn Hmong muq Eastern Xiangxi Miao
hmn Hmong mww Hmong Daw
hmn Hmong sfm Small Flowery Miao
iku Inuktitut ike Eastern Canadian Inuktitut
iku Inuktitut ikt Inuinnaqtun
ipk Inupiaq esi North Alaskan Inupiatun
ipk Inupiaq esk Northwest Alaska Inupiatun
jrb Judeo-Arabic ajt Judeo-Tunisian Arabic
jrb Judeo-Arabic aju Judeo-Moroccan Arabic
jrb Judeo-Arabic jye Judeo-Yemeni Arabic
jrb Judeo-Arabic yhd Judeo-Iraqi Arabic
jrb Judeo-Arabic yud Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic
kau Kanuri kby Manga Kanuri
kau Kanuri knc Central Kanuri
kau Kanuri krt Tumari Kanuri
kln Kalenjin enb Markweeta
kln Kalenjin eyo Keiyo
kln Kalenjin niq Nandi
kln Kalenjin oki Okiek
kln Kalenjin pko Pökoot
kln Kalenjin sgc Kipsigis
kln Kalenjin spy Sabaot
kln Kalenjin tec Terik
kln Kalenjin tuy Tugen
kok Konkani (macrolanguage) gom Goan Konkani
kok Konkani (macrolanguage) knn Konkani (individual language)
kom Komi koi Komi-Permyak
kom Komi kpv Komi-Zyrian
kon Kongo kng Koongo
kon Kongo kwy San Salvador Kongo
kon Kongo ldi Laari
kpe Kpelle gkp Guinea Kpelle
kpe Kpelle xpe Liberia Kpelle
kur Kurdish ckb Central Kurdish
kur Kurdish kmr Northern Kurdish
kur Kurdish sdh Southern Kurdish
lah Lahnda hnd Southern Hindko
lah Lahnda hno Northern Hindko
lah Lahnda jat Jakati
lah Lahnda phr Pahari-Potwari
lah Lahnda pmu Mirpur Panjabi
lah Lahnda pnb Western Panjabi
lah Lahnda skr Saraiki
lah Lahnda xhe Khetrani
lav Latvian ltg Latgalian
lav Latvian lvs Standard Latvian
luy Luyia bxk Bukusu
luy Luyia ida Idakho-Isukha-Tiriki
luy Luyia lkb Kabras
luy Luyia lko Khayo
luy Luyia lks Kisa
luy Luyia lri Marachi
luy Luyia lrm Marama
luy Luyia lsm Saamia
luy Luyia lto Tsotso
luy Luyia lts Tachoni
luy Luyia lwg Wanga
luy Luyia nle East Nyala
luy Luyia nyd Nyore
luy Luyia rag Logooli
man Mandingo emk Eastern Maninkakan
man Mandingo mku Konyanka Maninka
man Mandingo mlq Western Maninkakan
man Mandingo mnk Mandinka
man Mandingo msc Sankaran Maninka
man Mandingo mwk Kita Maninkakan
man Mandingo myq Forest Maninka
mlg Malagasy bhr Bara Malagasy
mlg Malagasy bjq Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy
mlg Malagasy bmm Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy
mlg Malagasy bzc Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy
mlg Malagasy msh Masikoro Malagasy
mlg Malagasy plt Plateau Malagasy
mlg Malagasy skg Sakalava Malagasy
mlg Malagasy tdx Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy
mlg Malagasy tkg Tesaka Malagasy
mlg Malagasy txy Tanosy Malagasy
mlg Malagasy xmv Antankarana Malagasy
mlg Malagasy xmw Tsimihety Malagasy
mon Mongolian khk Halh Mongolian
mon Mongolian mvf Peripheral Mongolian
msa Malay (macrolanguage) bjn Banjar
msa Malay (macrolanguage) btj Bacanese Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) bve Berau Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) bvu Bukit Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) coa Cocos Islands Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) dup Duano
msa Malay (macrolanguage) hji Haji
msa Malay (macrolanguage) ind Indonesian
msa Malay (macrolanguage) jak Jakun
msa Malay (macrolanguage) jax Jambi Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) kvb Kubu
msa Malay (macrolanguage) kvr Kerinci
msa Malay (macrolanguage) kxd Brunei
msa Malay (macrolanguage) lce Loncong
msa Malay (macrolanguage) lcf Lubu
msa Malay (macrolanguage) liw Col
msa Malay (macrolanguage) max North Moluccan Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) meo Kedah Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) mfa Pattani Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) mfb Bangka
msa Malay (macrolanguage) min Minangkabau
msa Malay (macrolanguage) mly Malay (individual language)
msa Malay (macrolanguage) mqg Kota Bangun Kutai Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) msi Sabah Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) mui Musi
msa Malay (macrolanguage) orn Orang Kanaq
msa Malay (macrolanguage) ors Orang Seletar
msa Malay (macrolanguage) pel Pekal
msa Malay (macrolanguage) pse Central Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) tmw Temuan
msa Malay (macrolanguage) urk Urak Lawoi‘
msa Malay (macrolanguage) vkk Kaur
msa Malay (macrolanguage) vkt Tenggarong Kutai Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) xmm Manado Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) zlm Malay (individual language)
msa Malay (macrolanguage) zmi Negeri Sembilan Malay
msa Malay (macrolanguage) zsm Standard Malay
mwr Marwari dhd Dhundari
mwr Marwari mtr Mewari
mwr Marwari mve Marwari (Pakistan)
mwr Marwari rwr Marwari (India)
mwr Marwari swv Shekhawati
mwr Marwari wry Merwari
nep Nepali (macrolanguage) dty Dotyali
nep Nepali (macrolanguage) npi Nepali (individual language)
nor Norwegian nno Norwegian Nynorsk
nor Norwegian nob Norwegian Bokmål
oji Ojibwa ciw Chippewa
oji Ojibwa ojb Northwestern Ojibwa
oji Ojibwa ojc Central Ojibwa
oji Ojibwa ojg Eastern Ojibwa
oji Ojibwa ojs Severn Ojibwa
oji Ojibwa ojw Western Ojibwa
oji Ojibwa otw Ottawa
ori Oriya (macrolanguage) ory Odia
ori Oriya (macrolanguage) spv Sambalpuri
orm Oromo gax Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo
orm Oromo gaz West Central Oromo
orm Oromo hae Eastern Oromo
orm Oromo orc Orma
pus Pushto pbt Southern Pashto
pus Pushto pbu Northern Pashto
pus Pushto pst Central Pashto
que Quechua cqu Chilean Quechua
que Quechua qub Huallaga Huánuco Quechua
que Quechua qud Calderón Highland Quichua
que Quechua quf Lambayeque Quechua
que Quechua qug Chimborazo Highland Quichua
que Quechua quh South Bolivian Quechua
que Quechua quk Chachapoyas Quechua
que Quechua qul North Bolivian Quechua
que Quechua qup Southern Pastaza Quechua
que Quechua qur Yanahuanca Pasco Quechua
que Quechua qus Santiago del Estero Quichua
que Quechua quw Tena Lowland Quichua
que Quechua qux Yauyos Quechua
que Quechua quy Ayacucho Quechua
que Quechua quz Cusco Quechua
que Quechua qva Ambo-Pasco Quechua
que Quechua qvc Cajamarca Quechua
que Quechua qve Eastern Apurímac Quechua
que Quechua qvh Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco Quechua
que Quechua qvi Imbabura Highland Quichua
que Quechua qvj Loja Highland Quichua
que Quechua qvl Cajatambo North Lima Quechua
que Quechua qvm Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua
que Quechua qvn North Junín Quechua
que Quechua qvo Napo Lowland Quechua
que Quechua qvp Pacaraos Quechua
que Quechua qvs San Martín Quechua
que Quechua qvw Huaylla Wanca Quechua
que Quechua qvz Northern Pastaza Quichua
que Quechua qwa Corongo Ancash Quechua
que Quechua qwc Classical Quechua
que Quechua qwh Huaylas Ancash Quechua
que Quechua qws Sihuas Ancash Quechua
que Quechua qxa Chiquián Ancash Quechua
que Quechua qxc Chincha Quechua
que Quechua qxh Panao Huánuco Quechua
que Quechua qxl Salasaca Highland Quichua
que Quechua qxn Northern Conchucos Ancash Quechua
que Quechua qxo Southern Conchucos Ancash Quechua
que Quechua qxp Puno Quechua
que Quechua qxr Cañar Highland Quichua
que Quechua qxt Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco Quechua
que Quechua qxu Arequipa-La Unión Quechua
que Quechua qxw Jauja Wanca Quechua
raj Rajasthani bgq Bagri
raj Rajasthani gda Gade Lohar
raj Rajasthani gju Gujari
raj Rajasthani hoj Hadothi
raj Rajasthani mup Malvi
raj Rajasthani wbr Wagdi
rom Romany rmc Carpathian Romani
rom Romany rmf Kalo Finnish Romani
rom Romany rml Baltic Romani
rom Romany rmn Balkan Romani
rom Romany rmo Sinte Romani
rom Romany rmw Welsh Romani
rom Romany rmy Vlax Romani
sqi Albanian aae Arbëreshë Albanian
sqi Albanian aat Arvanitika Albanian
sqi Albanian aln Gheg Albanian
sqi Albanian als Tosk Albanian
srd Sardinian sdc Sassarese Sardinian
srd Sardinian sdn Gallurese Sardinian
srd Sardinian src Logudorese Sardinian
srd Sardinian sro Campidanese Sardinian
swa Swahili (macrolanguage) swc Congo Swahili
swa Swahili (macrolanguage) swh Swahili (individual language)
syr Syriac aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
syr Syriac cld Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
tmh Tamashek taq Tamasheq
tmh Tamashek thv Tahaggart Tamahaq
tmh Tamashek thz Tayart Tamajeq
tmh Tamashek ttq Tawallammat Tamajaq
uzb Uzbek uzn Northern Uzbek
uzb Uzbek uzs Southern Uzbek
yid Yiddish ydd Eastern Yiddish
yid Yiddish yih Western Yiddish
zap Zapotec zaa Sierra de Juárez Zapotec
zap Zapotec zab Western Tlacolula Valley Zapotec
zap Zapotec zac Ocotlán Zapotec
zap Zapotec zad Cajonos Zapotec
zap Zapotec zae Yareni Zapotec
zap Zapotec zaf Ayoquesco Zapotec
zap Zapotec zai Isthmus Zapotec
zap Zapotec zam Miahuatlán Zapotec
zap Zapotec zao Ozolotepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec zaq Aloápam Zapotec
zap Zapotec zar Rincón Zapotec
zap Zapotec zas Santo Domingo Albarradas Zapotec
zap Zapotec zat Tabaa Zapotec
zap Zapotec zav Yatzachi Zapotec
zap Zapotec zaw Mitla Zapotec
zap Zapotec zax Xadani Zapotec
zap Zapotec zca Coatecas Altas Zapotec
zap Zapotec zoo Asunción Mixtepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpa Lachiguiri Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpb Yautepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpc Choapan Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpd Southeastern Ixtlán Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpe Petapa Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpf San Pedro Quiatoni Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpg Guevea De Humboldt Zapotec
zap Zapotec zph Totomachapan Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpi Santa María Quiegolani Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpj Quiavicuzas Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpk Tlacolulita Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpl Lachixío Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpm Mixtepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpn Santa Inés Yatzechi Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpo Amatlán Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpp El Alto Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpq Zoogocho Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpr Santiago Xanica Zapotec
zap Zapotec zps Coatlán Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpt San Vicente Coatlán Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpu Yalálag Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpv Chichicapan Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpw Zaniza Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpx San Baltazar Loxicha Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpy Mazaltepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec zpz Texmelucan Zapotec
zap Zapotec zsr Southern Rincon Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztc Lachirioag Zapotec
zap Zapotec zte Elotepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztg Xanaguía Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztl Lapaguía-Guivini Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztm San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztn Santa Catarina Albarradas Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztp Loxicha Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztq Quioquitani-Quierí Zapotec
zap Zapotec zts Tilquiapan Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztt Tejalapan Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztu Güilá Zapotec
zap Zapotec ztx Zaachila Zapotec
zap Zapotec zty Yatee Zapotec
zha Zhuang ccx Northern Zhuang
zha Zhuang ccy Southern Zhuang
zha Zhuang zch Central Hongshuihe Zhuang
zha Zhuang zeh Eastern Hongshuihe Zhuang
zha Zhuang zgb Guibei Zhuang
zha Zhuang zgm Minz Zhuang
zha Zhuang zgn Guibian Zhuang
zha Zhuang zhd Dai Zhuang
zha Zhuang zhn Nong Zhuang
zha Zhuang zlj Liujiang Zhuang
zha Zhuang zln Lianshan Zhuang
zha Zhuang zlq Liuqian Zhuang
zha Zhuang zqe Qiubei Zhuang
zha Zhuang zyb Yongbei Zhuang
zha Zhuang zyg Yang Zhuang
zha Zhuang zyj Youjiang Zhuang
zha Zhuang zyn Yongnan Zhuang
zha Zhuang zzj Zuojiang Zhuang
zho Chinese cdo Min Dong Chinese
zho Chinese cjy Jinyu Chinese
zho Chinese cmn Mandarin Chinese
zho Chinese cnp Northern Ping Chinese
zho Chinese cpx Pu-Xian Chinese
zho Chinese csp Southern Ping Chinese
zho Chinese czh Huizhou Chinese
zho Chinese czo Min Zhong Chinese
zho Chinese gan Gan Chinese
zho Chinese hak Hakka Chinese
zho Chinese hsn Xiang Chinese
zho Chinese lzh Literary Chinese
zho Chinese mnp Min Bei Chinese
zho Chinese nan Min Nan Chinese
zho Chinese wuu Wu Chinese
zho Chinese yue Yue Chinese
zza Zaza diq Dimli (individual language)
zza Zaza kiu Kirmanjki (individual language)

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.